The figure above shows the R&D Intensity in EU Member States. R&D Intensity is defined as the Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as % of GDP.
The stability of EU-27 R&D intensity at EU-27 level disguises quite different situations and developments across Member States. The EU-27 Member States and the Associated States are divided into four groups according to the level of R&D intensity:
- a group of Member States with high R&D-intensities: Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Austria
and Germany. Of the Associated States, Switzerland, Iceland and Israel have similar or higher R&D intensities;
- a group of three Member States with medium-high R&D intensities close to the EU-27 average: France, Belgium and the United Kingdom;
- a group of countries with medium-low R&D intensities (1 % to 1.7 %) composed of nine
Member States and Norway;
- a group of countries with low R&D intensities (less than 1 % of GDP) composed of twelve
Member States, Turkey and Croatia.
Read more in:
Science, Technology and Competitiveness key figures report 2008/2009